How to Use Exposure Compensation to Take Control of Your Exposure

How to Use Exposure Compensation to Take Control of Your Exposure


Chicago-River-2016-01-02You don’t have to shoot in Manual mode to take complete control over the exposure process.

When you use shooting modes other than Manual, the camera will set at least one of the three exposure controls (shutter speed, aperture, and/or ISO) for you. However, your camera provides you with an override called exposure compensation. It gives you the ability to change the camera’s exposure values from something other than what the camera automatically sets for you. In this article, I will show you how to use it to get the exposure you want every time.

When should you use Exposure Compensation?

First, let’s back up and talk about when you might want to use exposure compensation. You may wonder why you’d want to change anything, if your camera is already determining the proper exposure level.

The first reason is that your camera’s meter can be fooled by some of the conditions you face. The meter operates by looking at the tones in its view, then averaging them out. Basically, the manufacturers have determined that most scenes will average out to a middle grey tone, often referred to as 18% grey. Therefore, if the tones in your frame are darker than this middle grey tone, the meter will show that there is not enough light for a proper exposure, and therefore the meter thinks your picture will be underexposed. Conversely, if the tones in your frame are lighter than middle grey, the meter will show that there is too much light for a proper exposure and it thinks your photo will be overexposed. A lot of the time the camera meter is right, but sometimes it is not.

Some situations are supposed to be brighter than middle grey. A classic example is a photograph taken of a snowy scene. Your camera’s meter will assume that all that white snowy scene should be grey, and will therefore choose exposure settings that underexpose the image. Obviously you don’t want that. Here is an example, the picture to the left was taken strictly by the camera’s meter, and the picture to the right overexposed by one stop according to the camera’s meter:

A snowy scene frequently confuses your camera's meter. To the left is a shot taken at normal exposure. To the right is one taken after adding in a stop of exposure compensation (overexposure).

A snowy scene frequently confuses your camera’s meter. To the left, is a shot taken at normal exposure. To the right, is one taken after adding in a stop of exposure compensation (overexposure).

Another example is night photography, where the darkness of the scene should result in dark tones in your picture. The camera’s meter won’t recognize this though, and will tell you to brighten up the picture. Using exposure compensation will allow you to take control, and set a proper exposure.

As an example, check out the pictures below. In the picture on the left, taken at normal exposure as per the camera’s meter, it brightened the night scene and it looks a little washed out. To the right is an underexposed (according to the meter) image that more closely resembles the actual conditions of the scene.


The camera’s meter (and even the histogram) tells you that the normal exposure is correct (see below). But the reason the camera thinks the normal exposure is correct, is that it that the average of the tones closely approximates middle grey. However, the underexposed image actually more closely captures the reality of the situation.


Another reason you may want to use exposure compensation is that you simply don’t like the “correct” exposure. You may want to darken the scene to add some mood or drama, or you may want to brighten things up. Photography is ultimately an artistic endeavor, and is highly subjective, so exposure compensation gives you a tool to put that to work.

Finally, if you subscribe to the theory that you should expose to the right, exposure compensation will allow you to do so in camera modes other than Manual. If you are unfamiliar with this concept, expose to the right means that you slightly overexpose your images so that most of the tones appear on the right side of the histogram (without clipping anything). You later reduce the tones in post-processing and this can sometimes result in slightly better image quality. The overexposure happens by using exposure compensation.

How Exposure Compensation Works

Now that you know what exposure compensation is, how do you use it? In most cases, your camera will have a little button with a +/- on it. That is the button you press to change the exposure compensation. While pressing that button, turn the main dial of your camera right or left (by main dial, I am referring to the dial on the top right of your camera, usually next to the shutter release button). That will change the exposure compensation. Turning the dial one way will reduce the exposure, and the other way increases it. Each click of the dial will usually change exposure settings by 1/3 of a stop.


If you have a higher-end DSLR, then your camera will have a second dial or wheel on the back of the camera. Those cameras will usually not have the +/- button, but that second dial will be used to change the exposure compensation settings. The advantage is that you can just turn that dial with your right thumb without needing to press any buttons.


Exposure Compensation in Different Camera Modes

So what does exposure compensation actually do? You know that it changes the exposure, but how does it do so? By changing the aperture? Or the shutter speed? Or both?

The answer is that it depends on what mode you have your camera in. I will explain what is going on for each of the camera modes:

  • Aperture Priority Mode – In Aperture Priority mode, exposure compensation changes the shutter speed. Remember that in this mode, you set the aperture and the camera sets a corresponding shutter speed. If you change the Aperture, your camera just sets another corresponding shutter speed, and there is no change in the exposure level. Exposure compensation gives you the ability to change the shutter speed (and the overall exposure value) while staying at the same aperture you originally set.
  • Shutter Priority – In Shutter Priority mode, exposure compensation changes the size of your aperture. It is basically the reverse of Aperture Priority mode. You set a shutter speed, and the camera sets a corresponding aperture. Exposure compensation therefore changes the exposure by allowing you to change that aperture size.
  • Program – In Program mode (P on your mode dial), exposure compensation changes the shutter speed. At least that’s what happened on the cameras I tested. It is possible that yours works differently, or that you can change it in the menu. As with so many things, this is a good excuse to pull out your camera’s user manual and go through it.

What about Manual and Automatic modes? These don’t have exposure compensation. In Manual mode, the camera does not set an exposure value for you in the first place, you set everything yourself. Whenever you change the aperture or the shutter speed, you are changing the exposure value. In Automatic mode, there is no exposure compensation because you have no control over exposure – the camera does everything for you. That is one of the reasons why you should never use this mode.


Here we see the back of the camera before and after applying one stop of exposure compensation. In the example to the left, the camera shows a normal exposure with a shutter speed of 1/500 of a second. In the example to the right, the shutter speed is reduced by 1 stop to 1/1000 of a second, and the meter reading reflects that.

Exposure Bracketing

While talking about exposure compensation, there is a related topic that you might find useful as well. It is Auto Exposure Bracketing (AEB, or just bracketing). It is where you set your camera to take multiple pictures in a row with the first at normal exposure, the next one(s) underexposed, and the final one(s) overexposed (if you have Canon it may look more like this:  underexposed>normal>overexposed, you can also change the order on a Nikon if you go to your menu settings).

When you enable the feature in your camera’s menu, you set the amount of under and overexposure. The camera will take three to five pictures in rapid succession (depending on your camera, if you shoot Canon you have to also set your drive mode to high speed burst). In a way, this accomplishes the same thing as exposure compensation, because you are dialling in a certain amount of underexposure or overexposure.


Why would you want to do this? Several reasons. Usually it comes into play when there is a wide divergence of tones in the image. Using a little blending later, you can use the brightest tones from the underexposed image and the darkest tones from the overexposed image. In addition, if you are ever going to use any high dynamic range processing on your images, you should have multiple images to work with. Finally, you might just think of it as “exposure insurance” for important shots to make sure that you have nailed the exposure.


We all want to be able to take complete control over the exposure process, but not all of us want to work in Manual mode. When you work in a mode like Aperture Priority mode, the camera offers you a lot of benefits – speed being the main one. By adding exposure compensation to your process, you can get the speed of other modes, along with the control of manual.

If you haven’t used exposure compensation before, give it a try. If you are familiar with it, chime in below with your own tips and experiences.

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  • surya

    Good Content

  • David Alexander Barnett

    Thank heavens for an easy-to-follow, not too complex and very useful guide to handling exposure. 99% of the artcles cater to professionals discussing various merits of different camera models and modes. This is for the majority of people…who are largely ignored. If I were a Fuji tester, I would focus on the majority. Well done.

  • Mark Smith

    This is well written and very useful. My question is this: how much does it matter to get the exposure right when the photo is taken, as opposed to “fixing” the exposure later in Lightroom?

  • Really good question! The standard photography orthodoxy is to always get it right in camera. However, implied in your question is the fact that programs like Lightroom have made adjusting exposure easier and easier, so it isn’t as important as it used to be. What’s the right answer then? I suppose the the answer, which sounds like a cop-out, is to try to get it right in camera, and then tweak it later in Lightroom as you deem fit. Obviously you always want to avoid blown highlights and black shadows. Further, trying to brighten really dark parts of the picture will enhance noise and other problems. So you shouldn’t let reliance on Lightroom go too far.

    I will tell you that personally, I do not stress exposure levels as much as I used to. I do try to get it right, of course, but I try to keep exposure from being forefront in my mind when I am out shooting. If it is close, I’m good with it. A lot of times, I am bracketing my photos as well, so that gives me even more leeway. I personally try to focus all my mental energy on composition when I am shooting. I just think that is ultimately what matters in creating great photos. The more I can eliminate distractions from anything but composition, the better. I’m sure others will disagree, and I don’t think there is really a right answer here, but that’s how I see it.

  • Mark Smith

    Thanks for your reply, Jim. I agree wholeheartedly with what you said:
    “I personally try to focus all my mental energy on composition when I am shooting. I just think that is ultimately what matters in creating great photos. The more I can eliminate distractions from anything but composition, the better.”
    I think that’s what makes this the golden age of photography: we have been liberated from worrying so much about exposure and freed to concentrate on the actual composition.

  • I also agree with Jim about trying to focus primarily on composition. I am primarily an art and architecture photographer and frequently work in museum galleries using only available light and no external supports. My main workhorse camera has the ability to set minimum shutter speed and maximum ISO in its menu options. Without a tripod I know my personal shutter speed limit while hand holding to achieve minimum camera shake. I’ve also done ISO test images and determined a maximum ISO level and resulting noise level I am willing to accept with my camera model. By setting these values in the menu then using Program Mode I can focus mostly on composition with only occasional adjustments using exposure compensation.

    Recently I was photographing jewelry in an exhibit setting and the camera set the exposure too high because of spotlights causing glare spots where light would normally reflect off of the gemstones’ facets. By experimenting with exposure compensation I finally settled on 1 and 2/3 stops underexposure to resolve the problem in that particular lighting situation.

  • Mike Grehan

    A major benefit of exposure compensation is where I “shoot to the right”. Because the right hand side of the histogram contains more data than the left I have more control when shooting in raw and editing in lightroom. I take a shot, examine the histogram, and increase the exposure until the histogram is as far to the right as possible without losing highlight detail. In some shots, a loss of highlight detail may be acceptable (eg, the sun(.

  • Excellent article, as always Jim. Question….why is it easier to use EC than to simply adjust shutter speed dial to under/over expose? I have always considered it more complicated to use EC, and yet so many people sing its virtues.

  • Bill B

    Great article. Only thing that bothers me is most cameras I have had leave the exposure comp. on when you turn the camera off. I dislike having to remember to reset to “zero” when I want to shoot without compensation next time I turn on the camera. Wish there was a camera setting to change this behavior. I use a Nikon D7100 now but have had several cameras that work this way.

  • Richard A. Phillips

    “If it is close, I’m good with it.”
    “I just think that is ultimately what matters in creating great photos.”
    -Jim Hamel
    Couldn’t agree more. I follow the old film system, where the exposure had to be more or less correct else the roll came back black or white. Just that now, at the back of my mind I have the comfort that my errors are more easily forgiven in post.

  • Richard A. Phillips

    To each his own I guess. That’s what’s great about technology, It makes things accessible to more people. Having said that, I agree with you. I prefer using ISO and shutter speed to over/under expose.

  • Good to know, Richard. Glad I’m not the only one! 🙂

  • Yeah, I could see that being a problem. They ought to have a menu control for it. For example, on my camera you can decide whether you want bracketing to remain on after you turn the camera off. They could do the same thing for exposure compensation.

  • I’m guessing you shoot in Manual, Jim? If so, I would just keep doing what you are doing. You are essentially doing the same thing. Exposure compensation is just kind of like the same thing you are doing, but in a different mode (like aperture priority or program).

  • Those are cool features on your camera. That sounds like a good process.

  • That’s right. I do shoot manual mostly. But I do understand that when shooting in Priority Modes, exposure comp is necessary to adjust exposure. I just have always found shooting manual to be more comfortable and more accurate. I know a whole lot of folks shoot A Priority 90% of the time.

  • Steve Wedgwood

    Thanks. One of the most useful articles I’ve seen in a long time of reading foto-tips. My Pentax meter seems to “freak out” when I use any of the auto modes in a somewhat dark setting, like a forest, vastly overexposing everything. I can fool it sometimes with the shutter adjustment, since aperture doesn’t go below f5.6, but mostly find myself fumbling through a range of shots in manual until it seems right. Hadn’t considered using exposure comp to correct this.

  • Thanks Steve. Yes, that sounds like exactly the sort of situation where exposure compensation will help you. Hope it helps.

  • Hey Jim,

    I really appreciated your examples at the top of this post.

    Isn’t it counter-intuitive to think that a very bright snow scene would need to be overexposed? You wouldn’t need to increase the exposure by a full stop if you’re already shooting a bright scene in manual mode, but you’ve shown why the increase in exposure is needed when shooting in Aperture Priority mode. We (most likely) need to compensate for what the camera has already done.

    Same for the dark scene. At first thought looking at such a scene I would think I’d have to go to the overexposed side, not underexpose it.

    Again, we have to compensate for the camera’s pre-settings, especially when scenes are dimly or brightly lit.

    Thank you for such an informative post!

  • Maria R

    I will play around with the exp comp and bracketing. Thanks for the tips

  • Wendy Leyden

    Thanks for a clearly written tutorial!

  • Jose Maria Portillo

    Fantastic article! Thanks!

  • Andrew Johnson

    A useful article it sent me back to the manual as I had missed the fact the rear wheel on my Canon also operates as an easy exposure compensation control, I’d been going in via the menu! For most landscape shots was pretty much part of my set-up anyway but nice to be reminded there are a couple of features on my camera I have not fully explored.

  • That’s great. Yeah, the wheel is very handy for those that have it!

  • Glad you like it.

  • rwhunt99

    I know what you are saying, the problem is they are physical (hardware) controls. If they were entirely digital, every time you turn it off, presumably with a setting, they would revert to a default setting. I have trained myself (after some horror of finding me shooting with distorted settings) to do a quick check before I start shooting to endure my ISO, shutter speed, etc. are within my normal parameters.

  • Sohrab Banker

    Very well written article. Great tool for photographers that have a basic understanding, but not completely certain of these settings. Settled all my concerns once and for all. Thank you!

  • Brian Culver

    My D500 does reset to “zero” after shut down. I use the method to increase shutter speed for Avian action photography…..I always shoot in raw so that the ISO can be set as low as possible to reduce noise….the dynamic range of the D500 and the D750 is so good that underexposing by up to -1.3 EV is no problem.

  • Lee McCurtayne

    Some makers also have a range control, that lets you preset midtones darker or lighter. Try them all, nothing ventured nothing gained.

  • bassey edoho

    The best explanation article around exposure compensation! Took me so long to know it doesn’t apply to Full Manual mode. Most articles or teachers just assume you know. Not DPS, not Jim. Thank you guys!

  • hal

    great article and great night photo course

  • Bob Smith

    Very helpful, thanks a lot Jim!

  • Jamie Rellis

    Thanks for the explanation of how E/C works in the different camera modes.

  • mpmilestogo

    Hi Jim. First off thanks for a great article. I’m a beginner learning primarily how to use my Fuji X100F and have settled on aperture priority mode for most settings. I’ve noticed that the camera will tend to over expose lighter colors like bright green leaves on trees when left to its own. If you notice the tree with the bright green leaves, on the right, I feel I should have dialed down the exposure a bit. All the photos I am taking are experiments and tests at this point and the place I took the photo is only about 10 miles from where I live. Given that the sun was bright that day and the leaves appear to be over-exposes when the camera is left to its own settings, I think I should have used EC to dial down the exposure by one. Would this also be a good example to us something like bracketing in?

  • Jim Hamel

    Thanks! This is a good example of mid day sun making exposure tricky. You could dial the exposure down, but then the shadows on the left are in danger of doing to pure black. I suppose you could bracket to make sure you get everything. Frankly, however, I think I’d just reduce the Highlights a little bit in Lightroom or Photoshop. That would take care of things very quickly. But, since this is an exposure article, sticking strictly to exposure technique, your options are pretty limited given the disparity in tones and you might need to bracket.

  • Roy

    Jim, thank you very much, finally I got shooting in Manual and Shutter Speed and Aperture Priority. Its plain English make it easy for foreigners. Thanks again.

  • Nigel Cornfield

    Hi Jim,

    I shoot birds in flight.
    I set my camera (D500) to 1/1600, my apparture to f8 and let the camera decide on the ISO. I set limits of between 100 and 3200. Surely exposure compensation works by over/under exposing via the ISO it selects?

    Nigel Cornfield

  • Bill Merritt

    Nice article Jim. Any thoughts on using “Program Shift?”

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