The technique behind taking pictures like this is kind-of in depth, so I'm only going to go over the down-and-dirty-basics of it here! For more information, check out my blog post, and for even more information check out my e-book.
A regular panorama is where you take several pictures and then stitch them together using software. Panoramas allow you to capture a wide angle view (and can also increase the amount of megapixels your image has!)
A 360x180 panorama, however, is the same thing, except you take many pictures in a complete circle all around you (see the video in my blog post to see what i mean) and then you stitch it in the software. Then, after that, instead of leaving it stitched in rectangle form, you wrap it around in a circle so it looks like a planet (or tunnel). The reason why it wraps around perfectly is because we took an entire 360 degree angle view -- there won't be any silly line that suddenly cuts off the photo.
So how do you take the pics? Go in a somewhat wide open environment and spin around in a circle taking pics (again, see my blog post if this sounds confusing). Then you download a free stitching program called Hugin and stitch the photos in that. You select Stereographic as the output and then click inside the preview window where you took your picture and it wraps it around in a circle for you, so it looks like a planet.
The last shot up there was hand-held, the rest were taken with a panoramic tripod head that I built
Read the blog post or get the ebook if you wanna know everything about it, and if anyone has any shots like this, share them down below!