Dragging The Shutter: Balancing Fill Flash With Ambient Light - Digital Photography School

Dragging The Shutter: Balancing Fill Flash With Ambient Light

Wedding receptions are notoriously dimly lit places that make use of a flash a must. In this shot, I wanted to balance the ambient light from the stage with my flash to create more depth to the image. EOS-1D X, EF 24-70 f/2.8L II. 600EX-RT Speedlite. 1/60, f/2.8, ISO 800.

Wedding receptions are notoriously dimly lit places that make use of a flash a must. In this shot, I wanted to balance the ambient light from the stage with my flash to create more depth to the image. EOS-1D X, EF 24-70 f/2.8L II. 600EX-RT Speedlite. 1/60, f/2.8, ISO 800. Photo by Rick Berk/kNot Photography

Shooting indoors with a flash can challenge the best of photographers. Many times, the goal is simply to create enough light to illuminate your subject, and background be damned.  The results, however, tend to be less than pleasing when we allow the flash to be the only light source.  Assuming there is some ambient light in the room, adjusting the settings in your camera can help allow that ambient light into your exposure and create more depth in your image.

Most cameras typically sync with a flash at around 1/200 or 1/250 of a second.  While this speed is fine for the flash alone, it is generally too fast a shutter speed to allow ambient light to factor into the exposure. This creates images with a brightly lit subject and a very dark background.  To allow more ambient light in, you’ll want to slow your shutter down.  Putting the camera into Manual mode will allow you to adjust your shutter speed to do this.  You can then also open your aperture as wide as it can go to allow as much light as possible into the scene.  This technique is typically known as “dragging the shutter”.

The problem with dragging the shutter is that if the shutter speed is too slow, any movement can cause a ghost image, ruining the shot.  So you’ll need to keep the shutter speed fast enough to avoid that.  This may not allow enough ambient light in, so you have one last option to allow more light in.  Adjusting the ISO.  By raising the ISO speed, you make the camera’s imaging sensor more sensitive to light, allowing that ambient light to show in the image.

For the image above, the stage lighting for the band created a nice background light, but my flash was too powerful and my shutter speed too fast at the maximum sync speed of 1/250. By slowing down the shutter speed to 1/60, I gained two stops of light sensitivity.  I also raised the ISO to 800 to allow the sensor to be even more sensitive.  This allowed the flash to illuminate the bride and groom, and the stage lighting to show brightly in the background.

Another way to do this is to change the shooting mode on your camera. For most cameras, shooting in Program or Automatic means the camera will treat the flash as the only light source, and disregard the ambient light for exposure. However, if you change the mode on your camera to Aperture Priority, the camera then sets the exposure based on the ambient lighting, and flash is simply treated as fill.  The one caveat with this is that the camera could choose a shutter speed that is too slow to safely hand-hold, creating ghosting or blur in your image.  You’ll want to keep an eye on the shutter speed, and if necessary, raise the ISO to give you a faster shutter speed.  Many cameras also have a setting, allowing you set a minimum shutter speed when using flash in Aperture Priority mode to help avoid ghosting.

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Rick Berk is a photographer based in New York, shooting a variety of subjects including landscapes, sports, weddings, and portraits. Rick's work can be seen at RickBerk.com and you can follow him on his Facebook page.

  • Paul Moyer

    Nice article. I can really relate to the issue of trying to take a quality picture without ghosting or to high of an iso. This is especially difficult for me in indoor sporting events.

  • http://www.rickberk.com Rick Berk

    Thanks Paul. Sports are a whole different story, since freezing the action is paramount. Sometimes its a choice between a blurry picture or a flash-heavy exposure. I used to use wireless flash to light basketball, placing two off-camera speedlites in the corners of the court (usually mounted in the stands) to create a nicer quality of light than simple on-camera flash.

  • Steve Rubelmann

    Great information. I wish the author had passed on his flash setting. The EX600 is a quite powerful flash and if left on full power, would probably washed out the subject. I have (unsuccessfully) experimented with my EX430 on Manual and lowering the output, but I can’t get the effect I want. I used to do this with my Canon A-1 and Sunpak 422, but can’t seem to get the EX430 to pay attention to me. Thanks for another great article on your great website.

  • http://www.rickberk.com Rick Berk

    Should have mentioned. I simply leave it on E-TTL and let the camera determine the exposure.

  • Steve Rubelmann

    Hmm…that sounds way too simple. I will try that next chance I get. Here I am trying to master this stuff and going full manual and I could just leave it on auto. Thanks for the advice.

  • http://bit.ly/oufr4c gnslngr45

    I definitely plan to use this in the near future. Love the results.

    Flickr:
    http://bit.ly/oufr4c

  • http://www.rtjensen.com/ Ryan Jensen

    One other thing you can use, if your camera supports it, is rear-curtain sync, which causes your flash to fire just before the shutter closes. That way, if there is any motion blur it looks naturally “behind” the subjects.

  • Average Joe

    Really great advice! I never would’ve guessed the shutter speed could change so much with this. Now I want to try this out! Thanks for the great article, Rick!

  • Jay

    To avoid white balance conflicts perhaps a gel on the flash?

  • http://ai-artificialimagination.blogspot.com/ Nikko

    Some good tips, but I would’ve thought the easiest way would be to actually use the camera in Shutter speed priority mode and select the shutter speed you’re comfortable with (and the flash in ETTL).

  • http://www.memorytreephotography.com Richel

    Thanks for the great article. I have heard about this technique before but never understood how or why it worked. Thanks for explaining it!

  • Dave

    I wish people would stop saying increasing ISO makes the sensor more sensitive. It doesn’t. Increasing ISO adds analog gain to the signal after it has been recorded. It is a form of post processing.

  • http://www.facebook.com/meibi.shashin Agro
  • Scottc

    Interesting technique, I rarely use a flash and it’s use is something I can improve on.

    I’ve used this technique by accident a few times without really knowing what I was doing.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lendog64/5661283743/

  • http://reggiemateo.wordpress.com reggie

    The light from the flash looks soft and blends so well. Was it used with any modifier and was it on the camera?

  • timgray

    To the guys that is saying that ISO is analog gain after the fact. That is flat out wrong. changing ISO changes the sensitivity of the sensor by changing the charge pump voltage in a CCD to increase it’s sensitivity. “BOOSTED” ISO is done post processing.

  • Eric Matson

    Spot on! Too many folks run shy of M mode and fill-flash compositions, thinking it takes too long to execute a shot. They forget that the latest generations of digital DSLRs (Canon certainly) make M mode pretty quick and easy via their “null meter” indicator in the viewfinder. All it takes for confidence building is some practice in non-critical situations!

  • Dinesh Arya

    Great Article!
    Great Information…immediately experimented. got sucessful distictly different shots. Thanks a lot.

  • Brian

    Good article with simple but understanable logiic a few tips worth remembering

  • Khurram

    Very nice article.
    One thing i would like to add. If you have an external flash (Canon 480, 580 or 600 EX), you can turn on the high speed sync without worrying about the limited sync speed of 1/200 or 1/250 for builtin flash.

  • Kenny

    Were you using TTL? Is the flash point directly at the couple or bounce ?

  • http://www.rickberk.com Rick Berk

    @Kenny, flash was aimed at the couple, no bounce (ceiling was too high), on E-TTL mode.

  • Manny

    i’ve tried this but got nowhere near the effect. what’s the flash power? is it on full power, or 1/2 when you are in manual?

  • Andrew

    Would be really interested to hear which metering mode you used and which part of the scene you metered from for this image

  • http://www.herviewphotography.com Darlene Hildebrandt

    @khurram yes that’s true but in low light conditions you will just end up with a black background which is what is being avoided here by dragging the shutter. Also if you take the flash off camera that high speed sync will not work unless you have a remote trigger that is also TTL or the flash will communicate with the camera directly.

    @rick, how high was the ceiling? I’ve bounced off 20 footers that were wood beams, no problem.

    @manny he’s said a few times it’s in ETTL so the camera determines the flash output based on the aperture the camera is set to.

    @nikko yes that’s what I usually do it Shutter priority and set it to about 1/5th of a second. I actually like the motion blur it creates, I also use rear curtain sync as mentioned earlier so the blur is behind them.
    http://herviewphotography.zenfolio.com/michael-lindsay#h37d15cbd
    http://herviewphotography.zenfolio.com/p22909533/hf607de#h180c0637

  • http://www.herviewphotography.com Darlene Hildebrandt

    sorry I meant 1/15th of a second!!

  • Kornel Grzywacz

    what was the focal length in this shot, and the most important thing – what position of flash eg. 45, 90 degrees and the flash exposition correction ?

  • http://www.alborrelli.com/ Al Borrelli

    I think a few before/after comparisons would really help the target audience of this solid advice. Now they’re just seeing the end result n

  • GiGi K 910

    Thank you for the informative info! Could you please share your flash settings as well? TTL? Manual? I’d love to learn more on this topic. I struggle with exactly the things you wrote in this article. I shoot manual and have adjusted my settings differently trying to achieve nice lighting but normally leave my flash on TTL. Thanks again!

  • Ros McLaughlin

    Thanks for that information, It was really helpful

  • Ameet

    Great explanation sir about the using available light with flash, but sir could u tel me whether you were using a manual flash or TTL?, n if manual then on what increment was your flash…?

  • Christophe Broult

    Nice and clear article. Thank you.

  • kim kiri

    Balancing flash with ambient light with Canon DSLR.

    When it comes to photographing the interiors of churches and cathedrals the lighting conditions can be challenging. Flash is notoriously tricky for large indoor spaces, due to what’s technically known as the ‘inverse-square law’. In a nutshell, each time the distance doubles from the flashgun to progressively distant parts of a scene, they only receive a quarter of the illumination. With regular exposure settings, the result is that objects in the close foreground will be very brightly illuminated whereas objects further away will be very dark. The only time it’s worth using flash for indoor shots of large spaces, like the interior of a church or cathedral, is when you want to accentuate a foreground element with a little extra illumination…

    Read More : http://webcamerawebcamera.com/detail.php?id_detail=101

  • Teach_GT

    Adding to Kim Kiri’s comment… if you are using a flash to accentuate objects in some places, especially in old churches, make sure that it’s OK to use flash at all. Many older churches don’t allow flash as they can slowly destroy old paintings, frescos, etc.

  • Rick Berk

    This was shot with a 24-70mm lens. Flash was on camera, metered in E-TTL. No flash exposure compensation was set.

  • David

    So, if the couple in the photo were dancing fast instead of slow, what do you feel is the right shutter speed for that situation, while still allowing the ambient light to come in? I realize the ISO/aperture may have to change.

  • Rick Berk

    If they were dancing faster, the bottom line is you need to get a faster shutter speed. This was shot at 1/60, f/2.8, ISO 800. Let’s say for a faster dance, I’d like a shutter speed of 1/250 to freeze the action. Just raise the ISO the same 2 stops you are raising the shutter speed. I’m already wide open on the lens, so there’s nowhere else to go there, unless I change lenses to something with a faster aperture, such as a 50mm f/1.4, for instance.

  • David

    Thanks, Rick. I was at my step-daughter’s wedding last week, and my wife was asked to take some candids, as the photographer was leaving before the end of the night. The room was pretty dark, and I wasn’t really understanding how to capture people on the dance floor, because I was paying attention to my in-camera meter. I couldn’t widen the aperture because I wanted everyone in focus, but the shutter speed I was getting from the meter was way too slow. I couldn’t freeze anything with this. Later on, I kept the same aperture (I think it was 5.6), raised the ISO to 1600, put the shutter on 160, and fired away. The meter told me “way under exposed”, but lo and behold the pictures came out fine. I need to do a lot more work to either know when to disregard the meter, or figure out the right way to record this type of setting. I’m not a pro, just learning, but I wish I had some of those blurry ones back. I would have just fired away. Any more advice would be most helpful. Canon T3i with Canon 420EX Speedlite.

Some older comments

  • Darlene Hildebrandt

    June 6, 2013 06:34 am

    sorry I meant 1/15th of a second!!

  • Darlene Hildebrandt

    June 6, 2013 06:34 am

    @khurram yes that's true but in low light conditions you will just end up with a black background which is what is being avoided here by dragging the shutter. Also if you take the flash off camera that high speed sync will not work unless you have a remote trigger that is also TTL or the flash will communicate with the camera directly.

    @rick, how high was the ceiling? I've bounced off 20 footers that were wood beams, no problem.

    @manny he's said a few times it's in ETTL so the camera determines the flash output based on the aperture the camera is set to.

    @nikko yes that's what I usually do it Shutter priority and set it to about 1/5th of a second. I actually like the motion blur it creates, I also use rear curtain sync as mentioned earlier so the blur is behind them.
    http://herviewphotography.zenfolio.com/michael-lindsay#h37d15cbd
    http://herviewphotography.zenfolio.com/p22909533/hf607de#h180c0637

  • Andrew

    June 6, 2013 04:54 am

    Would be really interested to hear which metering mode you used and which part of the scene you metered from for this image

  • Manny

    May 27, 2013 01:02 pm

    i've tried this but got nowhere near the effect. what's the flash power? is it on full power, or 1/2 when you are in manual?

  • Rick Berk

    April 15, 2013 03:19 am

    @Kenny, flash was aimed at the couple, no bounce (ceiling was too high), on E-TTL mode.

  • Kenny

    April 13, 2013 04:25 pm

    Were you using TTL? Is the flash point directly at the couple or bounce ?

  • Khurram

    February 22, 2013 04:12 pm

    Very nice article.
    One thing i would like to add. If you have an external flash (Canon 480, 580 or 600 EX), you can turn on the high speed sync without worrying about the limited sync speed of 1/200 or 1/250 for builtin flash.

  • Brian

    February 22, 2013 11:59 am

    Good article with simple but understanable logiic a few tips worth remembering

  • Dinesh Arya

    February 22, 2013 04:38 am

    Great Article!
    Great Information...immediately experimented. got sucessful distictly different shots. Thanks a lot.

  • Eric Matson

    February 22, 2013 02:48 am

    Spot on! Too many folks run shy of M mode and fill-flash compositions, thinking it takes too long to execute a shot. They forget that the latest generations of digital DSLRs (Canon certainly) make M mode pretty quick and easy via their "null meter" indicator in the viewfinder. All it takes for confidence building is some practice in non-critical situations!

  • timgray

    February 19, 2013 02:52 am

    To the guys that is saying that ISO is analog gain after the fact. That is flat out wrong. changing ISO changes the sensitivity of the sensor by changing the charge pump voltage in a CCD to increase it's sensitivity. "BOOSTED" ISO is done post processing.

  • reggie

    February 18, 2013 10:39 pm

    The light from the flash looks soft and blends so well. Was it used with any modifier and was it on the camera?

  • Scottc

    February 18, 2013 09:55 pm

    Interesting technique, I rarely use a flash and it's use is something I can improve on.

    I've used this technique by accident a few times without really knowing what I was doing.

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/lendog64/5661283743/

  • Agro

    February 18, 2013 12:26 pm

    Solid, great advice. I used the same principle here outdoor:

    http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=564604326889612&set=pb.496329873717058.-2207520000.1361150667&type=3&theater

  • Dave

    February 18, 2013 05:17 am

    I wish people would stop saying increasing ISO makes the sensor more sensitive. It doesn't. Increasing ISO adds analog gain to the signal after it has been recorded. It is a form of post processing.

  • Richel

    February 18, 2013 05:14 am

    Thanks for the great article. I have heard about this technique before but never understood how or why it worked. Thanks for explaining it!

  • Nikko

    February 17, 2013 06:27 pm

    Some good tips, but I would've thought the easiest way would be to actually use the camera in Shutter speed priority mode and select the shutter speed you're comfortable with (and the flash in ETTL).

  • Jay

    February 17, 2013 01:06 pm

    To avoid white balance conflicts perhaps a gel on the flash?

  • Average Joe

    February 17, 2013 09:35 am

    Really great advice! I never would've guessed the shutter speed could change so much with this. Now I want to try this out! Thanks for the great article, Rick!

  • Ryan Jensen

    February 17, 2013 04:02 am

    One other thing you can use, if your camera supports it, is rear-curtain sync, which causes your flash to fire just before the shutter closes. That way, if there is any motion blur it looks naturally "behind" the subjects.

  • gnslngr45

    February 17, 2013 03:57 am

    I definitely plan to use this in the near future. Love the results.

    Flickr:
    http://bit.ly/oufr4c

  • Steve Rubelmann

    February 17, 2013 03:06 am

    Hmm...that sounds way too simple. I will try that next chance I get. Here I am trying to master this stuff and going full manual and I could just leave it on auto. Thanks for the advice.

  • Rick Berk

    February 17, 2013 02:55 am

    Should have mentioned. I simply leave it on E-TTL and let the camera determine the exposure.

  • Steve Rubelmann

    February 17, 2013 02:48 am

    Great information. I wish the author had passed on his flash setting. The EX600 is a quite powerful flash and if left on full power, would probably washed out the subject. I have (unsuccessfully) experimented with my EX430 on Manual and lowering the output, but I can't get the effect I want. I used to do this with my Canon A-1 and Sunpak 422, but can't seem to get the EX430 to pay attention to me. Thanks for another great article on your great website.

  • Rick Berk

    February 17, 2013 01:46 am

    Thanks Paul. Sports are a whole different story, since freezing the action is paramount. Sometimes its a choice between a blurry picture or a flash-heavy exposure. I used to use wireless flash to light basketball, placing two off-camera speedlites in the corners of the court (usually mounted in the stands) to create a nicer quality of light than simple on-camera flash.

  • Paul Moyer

    February 17, 2013 01:43 am

    Nice article. I can really relate to the issue of trying to take a quality picture without ghosting or to high of an iso. This is especially difficult for me in indoor sporting events.

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