What are the best filters for landscape photography? And how can you use them for consistently outstanding photos?
In this article, I offer plenty of tips for working with landscape filters. I discuss the power of circular polarizers, the value of Grad ND filters, and much more. By the time you’re finished reading, you’ll know how to handle filters like a landscape photography professional (and you’ll know the types of filters that every landscape shooter should own).
Let’s get started.
1. Use a polarizer to enhance the sky
If I had to pick just one filter to use for my landscape photography, it would be a circular polarizer.
Polarizers work by filtering out light that is reflected toward the camera, which means they reduce both reflections and haze. Unfortunately, haze can cause blue skies to appear less vibrant – but thanks to a polarizer, you can minimize any unwanted haze and reveal the true blue of the sky:
Note that polarizers work best when aiming the camera at a 90° angle from the sun, so always keep the sun’s position in mind when out shooting.
The polarization effect can be enhanced or reduced simply by rotating the filter element on the front of your lens. That way, you can preview the saturated sky colors without needing to take test shots.
Pro tip: Be sure you don’t take the polarization effect too far. It’s possible to over-polarize the scene, creating a dark blue splotch in the sky that’ll make the use of the filter obvious and the image look unnatural. (It’s often a problem when using ultra-wide lenses that take in a huge expanse of the sky.)
2. Use a polarizer to reveal what’s underneath the water
When photographing a stream or lake, the light often reflects off the water’s surface. In fact, it’s often impossible to see the rocks or plants that exist beneath the water, which can be a problem; what if there’s something of interest below the surface, such as rocks, fish, or even logs from fallen trees? What if you want to photograph the way the light falls on the lake bottom?
Well, using a polarizer, you can eliminate reflective light, see beneath the surface, and capture plenty of detailed images of fish, rocks, logs, and much more. Cool, right?
And as I mentioned in my previous landscape photography filter tip, the polarizer doesn’t need to be all or nothing. You can modify the effect by rotating the filter slightly to retain some reflecting light while still seeing beneath the surface.
In this next image, no polarizer was used on the left side; notice how the reflected light prevents you from seeing below the water’s surface? But on the right, a polarizer was used to reduce reflected light on the water’s surface, allowing you to see rocks on the stream bottom.
To be clear, a polarizer isn’t always the best move when working with reflective water. Sometimes, it pays to include reflections in the scene (especially if the reflections are unusually beautiful). But removing reflections can help focus the viewer, and it can also help saturate colors for a stunning result.
3 – Use a polarizer to reduce reflections on wet rocks
When photographing a waterfall, where there are generally a lot of wet rocks, light can reflect off of them, making them appear shiny. On occasion, that reflected light may be so strong that it detracts from the image. Using a polarizer can reduce the reflected light and reveal more detail in the rocks, adding interest to the image.
As with the water reflections discussed above, you can nuance the effect by rotating the filter to get the right balance of reflected light and detail underneath. In the images above, you can see how the highlights on the rocks can be reduced if desired by using a polarizing filter. Again, by rotating the filter as you look through the viewfinder, or on the live view screen, you can watch the effect happen and adjust it to your liking.
4 – Use Graduated Neutral Density Filters to darken the sky
When photographing the landscape, especially at sunrise or sunset, there is often a high amount of contrast between the sky and the foreground. That forces you to make exposure choices to determine what will be exposed properly. While digital cameras are much improved with regards to dynamic range in recent years, nature can still push your camera to its limits in terms of how much can be captured in a single image.
Graduated neutral density filters can help to reduce the dynamic range of an image, by darkening the brighter areas, like the sky, so that it falls within the range of what the camera can capture. Use Live View on your camera to see the positioning of the filter over the lens, especially when using a hard-edged ND graduated filter. Watch the way the foreground exposure changes in relation to the sky, as it is possible to overdo a good thing. If the sky gets too dark in relation to the foreground, try a less dense filter, for instance, a 2-stop ND grad rather than a 3-stop grad. Above, the image on the left was taken without the use of a graduated neutral density filter. On the right, a 3-stop,
Above, the image on the left was taken without the use of a graduated neutral density filter. On the right, a 3-stop, soft-edged graduated neutral density filter was used to darken the sky. Notice it also has the effect of brightening the foreground in relation to the sky, bringing out more detail in the darker area in the bottom left.
5 – Control the motion of water
Because of its nature, moving water is often the most dynamic part of an image. You can create a different mood simply by changing the way you capture water. Longer exposures tend to be more calm and peaceful, while shorter exposures can capture the violence of a crashing wave, or the power of a river going over the falls.
Since shutter speed controls the effect of motion, by using neutral density filters you can evoke both moods by limiting the amount of light that enters your lens. Thus, you can adjust the shutter speed to give you the effect of motion that you want. You may not need a filter for faster shutter speeds, but if it’s a bright day and you want to slow things down, you’ll need a neutral density filter to do that.
Using a 3-stop ND filter is usually fine for waterfalls to slow them down just enough to get a nice creamy look to the falls, but when capturing waves on the ocean, it may not be enough to get the effect you need. Sometimes four or even five stops of neutral density is needed to get the exposure you need to slow it down to capture water the way you want. Adding a 10-stop neutral density filter will allow you to slow down your shutter speed to a minute or more, eliminating waves completely, creating a calm scene that feels quiet and peaceful as opposed to the crashing waves pounding the rocks or beach.
In the image above, a 3-stop neutral density filter was used to slow down the exposure just enough to allow the water’s motion to be captured as it crashed on the rocks. In the image below, a 10-stop neutral density filter was used to slow down the exposure further, to a full 2-minutes, creating smooth water and a calmer looking scene.
6 – Create motion in clouds
As a landscape photographer, clouds are often the focus of an image or at least a strong component in the composition. Clouds add depth and drama to a good landscape, creating background interest. But you can also manipulate the clouds to your creative advantage as well, capturing their movement and blurring them to create a sense of flight and speed in your scene. By using a strong neutral density filter, such as Lee’s Big Stopper 10-stop ND filter or Vü Filter’s 10-stop offering, you can slow down your shutter speed to allow the motion of the clouds to be captured.
The proper shutter speed to capture cloud movement will vary, depending on how fast the clouds are moving. The longer the exposure, the more movement you will capture. An exposure of 30 seconds to one minute for fast moving clouds, such as in the image above, will result in a motion blur where the clouds still resemble clouds. An exposure of two or three minutes will result in the clouds becoming streaks of color across the sky, unrecognizable as clouds anymore.
One of the complaints I hear about using filters is that it takes too much time to put them on the lens, or it slows you down. I prefer to think of it as being deliberate about the shot I am trying to capture, and making sure that my camera captures exactly what I want.
Do you use filters? What’s your favorite technique using on-camera filters? Please share in the comments below.
Table of contents
- 5 Tips for Setting the Focus in Your Landscape Photography
- Six Tips For Using Filters to Improve Your Landscape Photos
- ADVANCED GUIDES
- CREATIVE TECHNIQUES