Good Crop Bad Crop - How to Crop Portraits

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Good Crop Bad Crop – How to Crop Portraits

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All images © Gina Milicia 2015

“Learn the rules like a pro, so you can break them like an artist.” ? Pablo Picasso

When it comes to knowing what is right for me there are a few things I know for sure: First, garlic and ice cream are never meant to be mixed together. Secondly, even if I colour my hair blonde I’m never going to look like madonna, and finally when my mechanic warns me that the timing chain in my car should be fixed as soon as possible, I need to listen up and act.

If who have read my other articles or ebooks, you will know that I’ve also learned many lessons in my photography career from stupid mistakes, or lapses in judgement. It’s through learning from failure, and trial and error, that I’ve managed to discover what works best for me.

When it comes to how I crop my portraits there are a few cropping styles I try to avoid because just like eating garlic ice cream I have learnt what works best for me.

How I crop my portraits is just as important to defining my style as the lens I use, the way I light, and how I process my files. I believe the way an image is cropped can change the look from “meh” to “amazing”.

Goodcrop 2B

I always crop a shot below the knee, mid-thigh, at the waist, across forearm, or through the top of head. If I’m going to crop through my model’s waist I will usually ask my model to bring their arms up so I don’t have to crop through their arms.

BadCropW

I avoid cropping at any of the joints of the body. This includes fingers, toes, elbows, knees and wrists. I also think cropping through the model’s chin looks odd.

It took me many years of trial and error, and studying the work of my favourite photographers, to learn that there are actually a few golden rules of cropping worth following. Ones that make a huge difference to the visual impact my portraits make, and how flattering these portraits can be for the subject.

Like all rules there are always exceptions, and the art world would implode if these rules were not constantly tested and broken. Pablo Picasso, Vincent Van Gogh, and Jackson Pollack are examples of artists whose styles broke every rule in the, “how to paint book” and in their time they were mocked and ridiculed by other artists and critics alike, yet today their paintings are priceless. Having said that, they all studied conventional painting rules of their time, and then went on to break those rules, and create their own signature styles. I wonder if they ever considered changing their hair colour to look like Madonna…

My shooting,lighting,posing, and post-production style has developed and evolved over the years, but the way I crop my images has remained the same.

Here are my top five tips for how to crop portraits:

#1 Crop In-Camera

Tightcrop A

Cropping in-camera basically means that you compose your image exactly how you want your final crop to look when you are taking the photo, rather than shooting loosely and cropping the shot in post-production. There are two reasons for this:

  1. Firstly, images cropped in-camera look totally different to images that are cropped in post-production. Filling the frame and cropping tight means that you will create great background blur (bokeh), which removes any background distractions and focuses more attention on your model, which is always a good thing.
  2. The other advantage of cropping in-camera is that your file size is not affected. A loosely photographed cropped image may only leave you with 10-15% of your file size, so a file that was originally 30MB as a full size image, is reduced to 3MB with a tight crop. Lower resolution images have less detail and won’t be as sharp as a full size image.

#2 If it bends don’t crop it

BadCrop 2Bad crop Crop3Good crop

I think cropping mid thigh looks visually more pleasing than doing so at the knee. Seeing just part of the knee where the dress ends also looks untidy.

There are also certain ways to pose models that are more flattering to the body. I’m always looking for ways to pose my models that elongate, rather than shorten, their body parts. I try and emphasize their best features, and hide or diminish the features that are not as strong.

As a general rule I crop in a way that will elongate and flatter the body. Cropping at the knees, waist, elbows, toes, fingers, ankles, or wrists can make your model look stumpy. Cropping off the arms or legs can make your model look square, or larger than they really are.

#3 Avoid cropping into the chin and keep the eyes in the top third of the frame

BadCrop 6Bad crop Crop6Good crop

Keeping the eyes in the top third of the frame is visually better than cropping into someone’s chin, which to my eye looks like I wasn’t paying attention when I took the shot, and visually this crop (above left) looks awkward.

I find my portraits look much stronger visually when the eyes are positioned in the top third of the frame. Cropping into the chin is visually jarring in the same way that garlic ice cream was jarring to my tastebuds.

Rulethirds

This is the original framing of a shot I took for the cover of my dPS book, Portraits – Striking the Pose. I wasn’t sure how much of the shot we would be using, so I deliberately shot wider, and left space on the left of my frame to allow for text and other images.

Rulethirds 1 Rulethirds 1B

Rulethirds 2B

Rulethirds 2

The final shot for the cover was cropped very tightly because I felt including the hands looked a bit messy. I cropped this image with the eyes in the top third of the frame because this was visually the strongest option.

#4 Give yourself options

The explosion of social media has radically changed how I shoot my portraits. When a client booked me for a session a few years ago, I would shoot the majority of their portraits as vertical images. Now I make allowances for websites and social media platforms that run both vertical, square, and horizontal images.

I will usually start with portraits framed as vertical images and then rotate my camera to shoot some horizontal frames.

I generally position my model to fill the left or right hand third of the frame. This adds interest to the portrait, and makes it visually more dynamic. Having said that, there are times when I will frame my portrait in the centre of the shot because I personally love the way it looks.

I also love cropping into people’s heads, but this is not everyone’s cup of tea, so I always shoot a few frames with space above the head just in case.

You never know where the final image may end up in a few weeks or a few years, so I think it’s a good idea to plan ahead. It only takes a couple of minutes to shoot slightly wider, vertical, and horizontal at the end of each setup.

#5 Crop like you mean it!

Use these suggestions as a starting point, and find a style that works for you. Start with a full length portrait and first try cropping using traditional rules, then try breaking the rules and see which way you prefer the most.

Each person, location, and pose you shoot will always be different, so don’t be afraid to mix it up a bit and create your own signature style. The one question I always ask myself when I’m cropping my images is, “Does this crop look deliberate or does it look like a mistake?”

Tightcrop 2 Tightcrop 3

Sometimes following cropping rules to the letter will still leave my portraits looking visually jarring. An example of this is if I photograph a model wearing 3/4 sleeves and crop at a point which is technically correct, leaving a tiny amount of arm showing just below the sleeve. This looks like a mistake and would look better if I cropped a little higher to remove the skin.

The more you shoot, the more you will start to get a feeling for what looks right to you. If you’re still not sure, do two versions and compare them.

You might like to deliberately create a series of portraits that are visually jarring because they will evoke an emotional reaction.

How do you like to crop your portraits? Do you like to crop in-camera or in post-production? Do you think a tighter crop looks best ,or do you like to let your portraits have lots of space around them? Is there anything I’ve missed? I’d love to hear your thoughts and see your images. Please feel free to share in the comments section below.

Like This Post? Check out More of Gina’s Work

This post was written by Gina Milicia who has authored many articles here on dPS as well as the following four best selling eBooks:

You can grab all 4 eBooks bundled together for 38% off the normal price.

Read more Composition Articles

This week on dPS we’re featuring a series of articles about composition. Many different elements and ways to compose images for more impact. Check out the ones we’ve done so far:

Read more from our Tips & Tutorials category

Gina Milicia has been a professional photographer for more than 25 years. She has photographed some of the world’s most high-profile people including royalty, billionaires and A-list celebrities. Often travelling the world, Gina also runs photography workshops and private mentoring sessions. You can sign up for her free ebook on "Portrait and Post Production Essentials" and see more of her work here. Check out her podcast “So you want to be a photographer” on iTunes.

  • Candace McGee

    As usual, this is really helpful and easy to understand. Thank you!

    http://thequirklife.com/

  • Jim

    Putting Pablo Picasso, Vincent Van Gogh, and Jackson Pollock. in the same context is an absurd thought. Pablo Picasso and Vincent Van Gogh were master designers. Jackson Pollock was a hack. If you study art, Pablo Picasso didn’t abandon the rules of design and neither did Vincent Van Gogh. Jackson Pollock was nothing more than a drunk paint slinger. His work was anti-art and an extreme abortion to all artistic skill. BTW, you spelled his name wrong. His last name is Pollock, not Pollack. Also, the rule of thirds is not a valid design concept.

  • Thomas Graham

    thanks, this is helpful info.

  • AnkitD

    Very helpful and the presentation with photos showing the intended crop and the result made it really easy to understand! Excellent!!!

  • Marinus H.B. Vesseur

    This is useful, but at the same time it demonstrates how useful design “rules” are not absolute. The last cropped image, the one that cuts off the top of the head but leaves a lot of room underneath the chin, instantly feels wrong to me. If there are hands that is different, obviously, because they are much more expressive than the top of ones head. I don’t think you can generally say that placing the eyes exactly on the upper “two-thirds” line is ideal.

  • Josh

    Perhaps you should review the golden mean and how it’s been used in ancient architecture before stating it’s not a valid design concept. It’s basically where rule of thirds comes from. In doing so you’ve pretty much stated that nature is not a valid design concept because it’s demonstrated throughout that as well.

  • Linda Bon

    This was a very helpful article! Thank you!!! Somewhere, not sure where, I read that you SHOULD crop at the joints, but after seeing your example photos, I believe your way is much more appealing. No more cropping at the joints for me!

  • tony_smyth

    Wow, dismissing both Pollock AND the Rule of Thirds in one small post!!! Thats either brave or incredibly ignorant: the latter seems much more likely.

  • Jim

    Its neither.

  • Jim

    I have reviewed the golden mean. In fact, I’ve studied it for five years. Study Dynamic Symmetry and you will learn much about the golden section, or golden mean as you refer to it as. Artists didn’t use the rule of thirds, they used design systems based the golden section which include root rectangles as well as the 1.618 golden section rectangle, the root phi rectangle and the 1.5 rectangle. The rule of thirds is a concept found in photography circles, in which case the limitations are severe. As Myron Barnstone once said, to only know the rule of thirds in design is to be poverty stricken. I don’t know one master artist that used something as limiting as the rule of thirds.

  • Gare Bare

    Excellent, thank you!

  • ColininOz

    Great article – particularly the positioning of all those images and the overlaying of the red indicators. So much easier to grasp than the usual images under each other and all the scrolling required to try to compare them. The very tight cropping appeals to me where body is not needed for a client. Works just as well for dogs !

  • Angelia

    I was just doing some research and many of the sites I found said NOT to crop in-camera. I don’t even think my camera has that option. How do you know you’re cropping correctly or cropping it how you would eventually like it to look if you’re just looking at the tiny LCD screen of your camera as opposed to on a 20″ or bigger monitor? I must admit that that “rule” confuses me. Granted, I hear you about the quality of the image, about the sharpness possibly being lost if you crop in post-processing … but how much do you truly lose? Anyway, for those of us who don’t have the option to crop “in-camera” … I guess we just work with what we’ve got. Also, when I crop an image, I usually don’t overwrite the original (just in case).

  • Cropping in-camera means how you compose the image, not actually clipping any of the image off. So if your subject has too much space around him/her, to “crop” in-camera you’d need to zoom in or move closer and shoot again. Hope that helps.

  • Angelia

    Ahh. Thank you.

  • belfastbiker

    Nice article!!

  • Les Cornwell

    Excellent advice!

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  • Gabrielle

    WOW…..This is so AMAZING!! So very helpful. I always forget that you can crop pictures, so you don’t always have to take multiple close ups, especially, if you don’t have much time to do several different levels of close ups, such as what is shown in this post.

    Thanks so much for sharing!!

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks AnkitD 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks Colin. Gorgeous dog. Such beautiful eyes!

  • Gina Milicia

    Thank you Gabrielle, glad you got something out of it!

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks Les 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks for clarifying Darlene. The term “cropping in camera” is a bit confusing isn’t it?

  • Gina Milicia

    Sorry Angelia, I should have been clearer about the term “cropping in camera” Darlene explained it beautifully. Thanks for asking the question. I’m sure it’s helped a lot of other people. 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks Linda. Before you crop just have a look at what it does to the person you are photographing. The aim is to elongate and flatter the body. Cropping at the joints tends to make people look stumpy. Glad the article helped you 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    That’s the great thing about art Marinus, we all have different taste and style and what appeals to one doesn’t appeal to another. Imagine a world where everyone liked the same things? Thanks for your input. 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    thanks Thomas 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thank you Candace 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks Tony 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thanks Josh! 🙂

  • Gina Milicia

    Thank you Gare 🙂

  • Angelia

    Yes, she was very helpful. 🙂

  • Sarah Smallwood

    Not sure, good crop or bad crop it is at the waist but something disturbs me about this, however I don’t want to make it a vertical, how could the crop work better

  • Sarah Smallwood

    I used this for my dog once and it gets put everywhere with text, it is very powerful where you crop a photograph, this was done in camera and I can tell the difference a tight crop like this never looks right if done afterwards

  • Dmitry Chastikov

    Believe me, I’ve never tasted anything more interesting in my life than the garlic ice-cream in https://www.tripadvisor.co.za/ShowUserReviews-g274967-d2436195-r141735394-Garlic_Pub-Riga_Riga_Region.html 😉
    Other than that, I’m more or less with you)

  • Yes agreed.

  • Perry Sore

    In the first image You cropped on the wrists, further down we can see vertical crops on the shoulder. Very contoversial keeping in mind that one of the rules mainly proposed is not to crop on joints. Yes, later You write about not following the rules to the letter, in my personal opinion, that is the place for those photos croped on joints, because reading the rule and then looking to example photo that disobeys the same or other just mentioned rule is somewhat irritating.
    I don’t want to sound bad, I appreciate that You take Your time to help us, just maybe some of the picture placements are off in this article 🙂

  • foxykate

    I would say what’s bothersome is how in center the model is, I would either have it vertical or crop it so she’s lines up with one of the “thirds”

  • Sarah Smallwood

    Hi, I’ve only just seen this comment but I did eventually set her off centre thanks

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